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Understanding Groupthink and Strategies for Fostering Independent Thought in Teams

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Kyle Davis
Kyle Davis
Be exclusive, Be Devine, Be yourself.

In the dynamic landscape of the corporate world, teams are often the backbone of innovation and progress. While teamwork is essential, there’s a lurking danger that can stifle creativity and lead to poor decisions: groupthink. Let’s delve deeper into this concept, its manifestations, and strategies to counteract it.

In 2017, Pepsi released an ad that became infamous not for its creativity but for its insensitivity. Featuring Kendall Jenner, the ad depicted a simplified version of a Black Lives Matter protest, culminating in Jenner handing a Pepsi to a police officer, seemingly resolving the tension. The backlash was swift and severe. This ad’s failure serves as a stark reminder of the dangers of groupthink, where a team’s desire for harmony overshadows critical evaluation.

What is groupthink?

At its core, groupthink is when individuals within a group prioritize consensus over critical thinking. It’s the suppression of alternative viewpoints in favor of a unanimous decision, even if that decision is flawed.

The term might sound modern, but its roots trace back to 1952 when William H. Whyte Jr. first coined it. However, it was Irving L. Janis’ 1972 book, “Victims of Groupthink,” that brought it to the forefront. Janis used historical blunders, like the ill-fated Bay of Pigs invasion, to illustrate the perils of decision-making in the absence of dissent.

Understanding Groupthink and Strategies for Fostering Independent Thought in Teams

Examples of groupthink

Historical Examples:

  • Challenger Space Shuttle Disaster: Engineers had expressed concerns about the O-rings in cold temperatures. However, these concerns were overshadowed by a collective decision to proceed, leading to the shuttle’s tragic explosion shortly after liftoff.
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion: Intended to be a covert operation, this invasion aimed to overthrow Fidel Castro’s regime. However, due to poor planning and underestimation of the opposition, it ended in disaster.

Workplace Examples:

  • Kodak: A titan in the film photography industry, Kodak’s downfall began when it failed to recognize the potential of digital photography, despite having early access to the technology.
  • Swissair: Once a beacon of financial stability in the airline industry, Swissair’s decline can be attributed to a series of ill-advised acquisitions and a lack of diverse opinions in its decision-making process.

8 groupthink symptoms to look out for

Irving Janis meticulously identified the following symptoms:

  1. Invulnerability: A dangerous overconfidence where members feel they can do no wrong.
  2. Rationalization: Ignoring potential pitfalls and challenges, leading to a false sense of security.
  3. High sense of group morality: An unwavering belief in the group’s moral righteousness, often overlooking ethical considerations.
  4. Stereotyping outsiders: Labeling dissenters as troublemakers or adversaries, further solidifying group cohesion.
  5. Pressurizing dissenters: Actively suppressing or ostracizing those with opposing viewpoints.
  6. Self-censorship: Members withhold their reservations or concerns, fearing isolation or ridicule.
  7. Unanimity: A false sense of agreement, where silence is misconstrued as consent.
  8. Mindguards: Certain members take it upon themselves to shield the group from dissenting opinions or uncomfortable truths.
Understanding Groupthink and Strategies for Fostering Independent Thought in Teams

What causes groupthink?

Several underlying factors can precipitate groupthink:

  • Fear of ostracization: The innate human desire to belong can lead individuals to conform, even if they harbor reservations.
  • Lack of diversity: A homogeneous group, whether in terms of background, experience, or thought, is more susceptible to groupthink as there’s a lack of varied perspectives.
  • Faulty leadership structure: In scenarios where leaders dominate discussions or discourage dissent, groupthink can thrive.

How to avoid groupthink

Combatting groupthink requires proactive measures:

  1. Diversify your team: A mix of genders, ethnicities, backgrounds, and experiences can offer a plethora of perspectives, enriching discussions.
  2. Promote inclusive leadership: Leaders should not only be open to feedback but actively seek it. This involves creating an environment where every opinion, no matter how contrary, is valued.
  3. Encourage quiet voices: Often, the most profound insights come from the quietest voices. Ensuring they have a platform to share their views can be invaluable.


Groupthink, while subtle, can have monumental consequences for organizations. It not only stifles innovation but can also lead to decisions that are detrimental in the long run. By recognizing its symptoms, understanding its root causes, and implementing strategies to counteract it, teams can harness the true power of collaboration, fostering an environment that values individual insights while working towards a collective goal.

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